2023年11月11日

勾神源于宋代开封的成语

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宋朝成语_宋朝成语典故_北宋成语/

我爱自由的网络,我爱开放的开封,我爱梦幻的东京,我爱美味的食物和小吃,我爱春天的清明节,我爱夏天的宝阳湖,我爱春天的黄花。秋天的城市,我喜欢冬天的江边落日,我喜欢宋朝的淳朴与质朴……欢迎加入宋都微生活,把宋都生活纳入您的微信!

北宋成语_宋朝成语_宋朝成语典故/

宋朝的开封是中国历史上的一个亮点,人文荟萃,也出现了一些成语。 如“半部论语治天下”、“大事不惑”、“开卷有益”、“拂须”、“玉粒肉桂柴”、“万事皆亡”、“抓住他们”一气呵成》、《不再知道世间有可耻的事》、《出人头地》、《一举写完》、《轻言细语》、《坚持》、《这里是异端》、《德高望重”、“怨言不已”、“绿肥红瘦”、“三四都没有”、“直奔黄龙”等,这些成语具有帝王将相的特征、政治特征、城市特色,概括起来就是一大特色,那就是宋都汴京的特色。

习语是自古以来长期不断产生和使用的短语或短句。 作为语言的精华、历史的缩影、文明的积淀、智慧的浓缩,它是中华民族的文化瑰宝,蕴含着深刻的道理。 成语不仅极大地丰富了汉语词汇,而且对中华传统文化的传承、教化人民、民族思想和思维方式的形成和发展发挥着重要作用。

开封作为一座人文荟萃的历史文化名城,产生了许多成语,其中有两个高峰时期。 第一次是在先秦时期,尤其以战国时期魏国都城大梁时期为代表。 民间流传着“无端之忧”、“围魏救赵”、“笑五十步”、“三人成虎”、“惊鸟”、“以俸禄救火”等说法。 第二次是开封的鼎盛时期——作为宋朝首都的汴京时期,产生了更多、内容更丰富的成语。

我国历史悠久,文明繁荣,成语极其丰富,有成语五万多个,可谓浩瀚的海洋。 近年来,文人学者从地方文化的角度撰写文章、着书收集开封成语,并取得了不少成果。 但有哪些成语是出自开封呢? 由于意图和标准不同,很难从这些作品中厘清。 即使是注重追本溯源的《词源学》,也未必能找到成语的真正起源。 比如,《词源》中引用了宋代刘永《鹤翔长空》中的“浅杯低吟”一词:“青春一时,我可忍”。名,改为浅杯低声唱”(P1825)。 有的论着认为这是源自开封的成语。 其实,最早使用这个成语的人是四十多年前的南唐后主李渔,他是金陵(今江苏南京)人。 五朝宋初陶谷有记载:“李渔在乡下,为妓女,遇见一位和尚正在摆宴,渔就成了不速之客。 和尚命他喝酒唱歌弹琴,甚好,一见于,是个俊美男子,二人倾心,于成嘴大书右壁上,写着: “倒一杯酒低吟师父,倚红翠翠;鸳鸯寺师传授风流教义。”可见“倒一杯酒”的由来。对酒低声”与开封无关。 刘墉的《鹤飞天》虽然是在开封写成的,但它是续作,并非他的原作。 又如《不忍回头》、《汉语成语词典》、《汉语成语词典》等都引用了李渔在开封被囚禁时写的《玉美人》诗:“东风又吹了”昨夜小楼中,明月中祖国不忍回首。”其实,这句话早在唐朝就有了。 唐中叶戴叔伦的《哭朱芳》写道:“最不忍回首之处,是九泉寒,树青青。”

判断一个成语是否起源于宋朝都城开封,需要严格遵循四个学术标准:一是它必须发生在宋代开封,而且其作者和受害人当时都在开封;或者涉案人员与开封有直接关系; 第二,它必须在历史文献中首次出现; 第三,它必须是今天常用的。 那些只为古人所用,未流传至今,或近代很少使用(即作用不大)的,应予排除; 第四,它们只是典故,不能普遍使用。 应排除(如“一杯酒释兵权”),必定是“多为明确的意思变化”。 按照这个标准过滤,我们就能找到真正起源于宋朝开封的成语。 下面列举如下,并选取《词源》、《汉语成语词典》、《汉语成语词典》、《成语渊源词典》来佐证并表明其流传程度。

1、半部论语治天下(半部论语)

“半部论语治天下(半部论语)”出自宋太宗宰相赵普之口。 罗大经记载:

杜少陵诗曰:“小儿知止于论语,大儿终随商贾。” 因此,《论语》是一本儿童读物。 赵普又当了宰相,人们都说他是山东人。 读它的读者只有《论语》和《少陵论》。 太宗试图以此论来质问溥仪,但他并没有隐瞒。 他回答说:“我一生一无所知,但这就是事实。以前我用半辅太祖统治天下,现在我要用半辅太祖为陛下带来太平。” ” 相也绝对配不上《论语》,他的话是天下最好的话。

从杜甫的诗中可以看出,至少从唐代开始,《论语》就成为了小学教科书,也就是说,它是初级读物,而不是高深经典。 赵普出身迂腐,文化有限,基本仅限于《论语》的水平,他并没有回避宋太宗的质问。 相反,他自豪地说出了这句千古名言,并成为了一句成语。 《正史列传》记载了他的能力,并说:“蒲绍行官,少学,为臣。太祖常劝其读书,晚年不放卷,每次回到自己的私人住宅,他关起家门,打开箱子,拿书,整天看书。第二天,当他掌权时,他就像流水一样被处决了。他死后,他的家人都看着他。其间,有《论语》二十篇。(P8940)可见,赵普注重《论语》的研究,这是他治国理政的理论基础。用“半部论语治天下”这句话来强调学习儒家经典的重要性,泛指掌握经典理论的基本精髓,可以指导工作。

《词源》(第415页)、《汉语成语词典》(第26页)、《汉语成语词典》(第37页)、《成语起源与发展词典》(第27页)《论语》并选本史料。 严格考察,“半部论语治天下”的说法,最早见于南宋。 宋初,没有可信的史料支撑,但成语却与史实有出入。 认可。

2、打开书本有好处

“开书有益”这句成语出自宋太宗。 王丕之记载:

太宗潜心文史,为国泰民安,颁布命令李熙、胡蒙、徐玄、张杰等,着有各类书籍千卷,他将其命名为“太平玉兰”。 又命人将野史集结为《太平广记》五百卷,将历代文章集结为一千卷,名为《文苑英华》。 太宗每天读《御览》三卷。 由于有些空白,他利用业余时间来弥补。 他尝了尝,道:“开卷有帮助,我不觉得有什么麻烦。”

宋太宗推行崇尚文学的政策。 他是宋初三大类书籍《太平御览》、《太平广记》、《文苑英华》的策划者和命名者,也是一位热心的读者。 空闲时间,我坚持每天读三册,认为读书有益。

《词源》(第3240页)、《汉语成语词典》(第459页)、《汉语成语词典》(第563页)、《成语起源与发展词典》(第570-571页)接受本文,并选择此史料。 应当指出的是,以前已经提出过类似的表述。 如晋代陶潜云云:“少学琴书,爱清静,读书有所所得,则乐而忘食。”

3.不要对重要的事情感到困惑

“大事不惑”这句成语也出自宋太宗。 《宋史》(P9514-P9515)记载:

太宗若想纠正这种情况,也许会说:“段子是个糊涂的人。” 太宗曰:“处小事则糊涂,做大事则不糊涂。” 他决定改正它。

鲁端,幽州安次(今河北廊坊)人,出身官宦家庭。 他为人慷慨,善于交友,乐善好施。 这件事发生在至道元年(995年)四月:

夏四月,癸未末,卢孟正被罢吏部尚书、平章事,转为右侍郎。 ……又传段氏曰:“殿之上,无妄教,而能进贤能退,则算能人,当勉励之。” 金钩未深,须在溪中请教渔人。”意思是属于段。几天后,孟政被革职。段礼为官仅四十年,突然得到了回报,他常常后悔这么晚才被任命,以保持彼此的重要性,了解大局,并保持安静和简单。(P810-P811)

宋太宗任命吕端为宰相,因为他性格稳重,学识渊博,善于判断大事,并明确表示只要能按照德才的标准选拔官员,就称职。 宋太宗认为,做官不需要事事亲力亲为,为琐事所束缚,但在大是大非面前必须保持清醒的头脑。

《词源》(第682页)和《汉语成语词典》(第198页)接受这篇文章,并使用这篇史料。

4、玉粒、肉桂子

“玉粒桂子”这个成语出自刚到开封的著名学者王玉玺之口。 他的《陈情表》说:

已经多余的傅念辰再次请教。 秋兰脱衣,再唤江边魂; 红药切诗,不看禁树。 古当老于小间,常去参。 就如亲自派人去见梁,亲自享受魏阙一样。 天下没有编钟的地方,家家户户都为挂编钟而烦恼。 于是,奴仆、马匹,忙于工作,祈福; 兄弟俩迫于饥饿和寒冷,四散各地。 如果你没有从内部得到职称而得到真正的俸禄,或者你从外面请使来救济穷人,那么你可以用它来赡养你在高位的亲戚,并准备你的开支。国家的钱? 看云看日,并不代表我不爱宫殿; 我没打算拿着玉粒肉桂俸禄去北京生活。 福王尊陛下,为皇帝。 他认为他的大臣们可以纠正他们的错误,进步不是基于人。 也许他会在西苑再指挥燕仑,或者在东路指挥成威。 唯有国内外两次任用,都是以皇帝及外戚的话为依据。 钱茂臣严明,大臣们无责,所以更加忧心忡忡,等待罪来。

淳化四年(993年)八月,朝廷召见已被贬为解州团联副使的王裕回开封,任知照文官。 刚刚贬谪回到朝廷的他原本欣喜若狂,但汴京的高物价让囊中羞涩的王裕难以应对,于是向皇帝求情。 在他看来,汴京的米粒宝如玉,柴宝宝如桂枝。 所以,他虽然贪图汴京的繁华,却实在不能住在那里。 宋朝时期,中央官员的俸禄低,而地方官员的俸禄高。 不久,王玉轩“乞丐出县支养,知有陕州,赐其三十万”(P9794)。 可见皇帝知道他经济拮据,以高俸禄为地方官照顾他。 他还特意“赐三十万元”赈济。

另外,据史料记载,在前一年淳化三年举行的科举考试中,有几位来自邻国高丽的宾工进士参加。 淳化四年,遣陈靖等出使高丽。 回国时,他们带来了高丽国王的感谢信:“学生王宾、崔翰入朝求学,受宠赐。省学吏仍遣回国”。 …… 鲍氏宾、韩等幼子,流浪依依;不畏彭飘,早客王于天邑。短褐袍,玉粒桂花俸禄,愁食贫,若是皇帝陛下慈祥美丽,容颜众多,他的博物馆和山谷资源丰富,文艺事业也很发达。去年,高煊煊在大选中鲁儒、宾韩接管五泽宫,敢于可爱于中虎;英域乱巾,空志羡鱼……在“玉粒桂地”的开封读书考试期间俸禄”,生活艰难,但幸亏皇帝恩慈,使他衣食无忧,从而考上了进士。 这篇文章虽然来自海外,但词是针对开封的。 北宋时期,开封是历史上第一个由封闭向开放转变的国际大都市,商品经济空前繁荣。 成长的精神。”物价高,生活困难,用“玉粮肉桂俸禄”来说明当时开封的生活成本高,是有道理的。 。

需要指出的是,上一代也有类似的说法。 《战国策·楚策三》有“楚国粮贵于玉,俸贵于桂”之说,正是这句成语的原态。 就现存文字资料来看,“玉粒桂子”这个成语最早来自宋太宗时期的开封。 《词源》(第2042页)载此文,出处引自王羽《陈情表》。

5.搅拌胡须(抚平胡须)

宋真宗宰相寇准:

一日,在正室用膳,修胡须时,举起衣袖,缓缓拂过。 准正瑟道:“巩义国的大臣,低头做官,拂须?” 他说他深感羞愧。

宋真宗在正室堂设宴时,宰相寇准的胡子上沾满了汤汁。 一直小心翼翼地跟在寇准身后的副宰相丁谓赶紧上前用袖子擦去。 没想到,刚正不阿的寇准不但不领情,反而批评他作为大臣不应该降身为官。 丁谓受辱愤怒,从此怀恨在心,最终将寇准逐出朝堂。 “须”字后接“须”,与“谄媚”组合成成语“须”。

《词源》(第1235页)包含文章“胡须”并引用了此内容。

6.孤注一掷(全有或全无)

这个词最早出自开封宫廷官员王钦若之口。 李涛(P1389)记录:

由于契丹太平,朝廷无事可做,寇准对自己的功绩非常得意。 虽然上级对他很好,但王钦若却给他带来了很大的伤害。 一日朝会上,荀先退,抬头见荀,秦弱因进而曰:“陛下尊寇准,有为国之功吗?” 话说,陛下不以澶渊之战为耻,但一定为国家做出了贡献,为什么?”上级惊奇道:“为什么?”秦弱道:“城下联军虽然耻辱,春秋时期还是一个小国,现在已经是数万倍了。 正是因为澶渊的所作所为,你才如此尊贵,又在城下结盟,怎能如此无耻!”上级愕然,无法回答。 当初关于征伐亲家的讨论,还没有定论。或借问,谆曰:“耳中常有血涌。”故谗人谓谆无爱君,曰:“陛下已学多矣,博者欲失也。” ”用尽就是用尽一切,这叫孤注。陛下,寇准的孤注也是危险的。” 如此一来,上古准的实力就稍稍下降了。

“澶渊之战”之后,宋真宗对功绩卓著的宰相寇准非常厚待。 政师王钦若十分嫉妒,将寇准亲自逼迫皇帝出战比作一场孤注一掷的赌博,皇帝的性命却是侥幸成功。 宋真宗听信了这种谗言,从此冷落了寇准,不久寇准就被贬出了朝廷。 后人据此总结出“全有或全无”。 元代张宪在《禅元行》中写道:“亲征英雄,会独断专行,孤注一掷,则先胜枭雄。” 后世普遍用这个成语来形容人在绝境中,不惜用尽全力,竭尽全力,试图挽救失败或困难的局面。 《词源》收“拼命”,引此事件为出处(第788页),《成语源流词典》(第368页)收“拼命扔”,用此典故。

7.不再知道世界上有可耻的事情

“已不知世间有耻辱之事”出自在开封担任亭阁校勘的欧阳修在其《谏尚书》(P990)中说:

如果一个人呆在自己的位置上不说一句话,那么他就可以离开而不打扰别人。 昨日,安道被贬,石鲁受罚。 他尚能看清士大夫的面目,出朝朝谏。 但他已经不知道,世界上还有可耻的事情! 可惜圣朝有事情的时候,谏官不说话,让别人去说。 书已载入史册,日后耻辱朝廷的人只能迈出一步。

景三年(1036年),范仲淹号召变法,得罪宰相吕夷简,被贬饶州(今江西鄱阳)。 当时,不少官员上书宋仁宗,为范仲淹请冤,但谏官高若那认为应该贬范仲淹。 馆主编欧阳修上前愤怒撰文谴责高若娜的阿谀奉承、卑鄙无耻。 高若那大怒,上书皇帝,导致朝廷将欧阳修逐出京城,贬为夷陵(今湖北宜昌)县令。 [9](P10375-P10376)

《汉语成语词典》(第96页)和《成语起源与发展词典》(第109页)接受这篇文章,并用这本词典将其简化为“不知天下有可耻之事”。

8.一笔勾销

“一划而过”出自时任开封参赞范仲淹之口。 历史记载记载:

为了参政,命公与韩、傅共同主理天下事。 由于路监部门人才匮乏,就用了杜奇、张文这样的人。 当大众拿课本时,他把主管当作无能的人。 每当他看到一个人的名字时,他都会在上面打勾以方便查找。 辅公曾为公公,谓父曰:“十二尺为数,何知一家人哭!” 父亲说:一家人怎么一路哭成这样?

仁宗庆历三年(1043年),范仲淹、韩琦、富弼等实行新政。 由于担心地方监察部门无法有效监督新政的实施,范仲淹首先在官员名单中勾销了不作为的地方官员的名字。 ,由有能力的官员取代。 枢密院副使富弼忍无可忍,说你这样做很容易,但是会让他们全家哭泣! 范仲淹毫不妥协地说:“一家人的哭声,与遇难者一路的哭声相比,算得了什么?” 后人用“一笔勾销”比喻彻底取消一切或不再提起过去的事。

《汉语成语词典》(第1016页)和《汉语成语起源词典》(第1179-1180页)接受本文并使用此词典。

9. 一口气抓住它们

“一举擒获”出自开封监察御史刘元裕之口。 张士政记载:

苏舜钦入狱时,曾到纪念馆参观。 因十月沈聚会,堂中御史刘元裕被枪杀入狱。 刘伟对石翔说道:“我和我丈夫一起把你们都抓起来。”

庆历四年(1044年),范仲淹、杜衍等招揽人才,实行新法。 苏舜钦是杜衍的女婿。 经范仲淹推荐,任集贤堂校理、金奏书院监事。 御史中丞王恭臣等人反对变法。 当时,苏舜钦去纪念馆祭神。 苏舜钦和往常一样,用自己拆开的废纸,把纪念信封换成了买酒宴席的钱。 王恭臣与御史刘元裕诬告苏舜钦偷卫侍卫,以攻击范、杜。 苏舜钦被贬为平民,与会的十余名名人同时被贬。 “石相”指的是贾昌朝,刘元裕为了取悦他而攻击了一批不服从他的朝廷官员。 刘元玉“贪色,偷盗贩卖禁物,与小人争权,为大众所鄙视”。 “批评者视元佑为叛徒”(P10072),品行恶劣。 “一网打尽”被广泛使用和流传,意思是不放过任何人,一网打尽,或者将他们彻底消灭。

《词源》(第15页)、《汉语成语词典》(第1041页)、《汉语成语词典》(第1262页)、《成语起源与发展词典》(第1201页)接受本文并使用本守则。

10. 取得领先

“出头”出自欧阳修,曾任开封全知贡举、翰林学士。 他在给著名学者梅尧臣(P2459)的信中说:

读石老师的书,我不觉得出汗,真幸福! 老人当避道,让他一路走。 真令人欣慰。

嘉元二年(1057年),朝廷任命翰林学士欧阳修为全知贡举,主持当年的进士及其他科举考试。 由于欧阳修打破成见,选拔得当,北宋政治界、思想界、文学界的代表人物都在这里涌现,使得当年的科举考试非常成功,文坛明星璀璨。 苏轼就被选中了。 选官欧阳修在给梅尧臣的信中盛赞苏轼。 他毫不掩饰自己对后辈的崇拜,表示自己会避开这个人,让他在人群中脱颖而出。 。 后人写下“出人头地”。 元人编撰的《族谱》卷三,有一章介绍苏轼的事。 题为《前行》:“苏轼,字子瞻,号东坡居士。曰:老夫应远离此人。”

《汉语成语词典》(第149页)和《汉语成语起源词典》(第174页)接受本文并使用此词典。 《词源》(第336页)有“出头地”,但没有解释,只说“参见‘头地’”。 《一头一头》(第11页)一文引用了这句话,解释为“一头让他站得更高”。 但下面的“出人头地”是明代陆才诗中所用,选材应是典型材料而非原始材料。 《中国成语词典》(第156页)接受这篇文章,但也引用了明清时期的材料。

11.人们说话轻声

“一人轻言”出自曾任开封知县、谏言的范镇。 他写信给宋仁宗(P4436-P4437):

大臣最近被洪水和彗星流放京城,这是一个不寻常的变化,所以他请求尽快制定计划,以回应神罚。 关门待罪,祈死。 牧师的轻言固然不足以感动圣灵,但他所说的却是来自天上的警告。 陛下即使不用臣下的言语,也不惧怕天命!

宋仁宗多年来没有子嗣,他也不想立一个儿子作为太子。 他又体弱多病,群臣们整天惶恐不安,却又不敢多说什么。 嘉元元年(1056年),御史范震冒着生命危险,多次上书请求皇帝尽快立嗣,以防发生不测。 最初的建议来自一个地位低下的人,他的意见没有被重视。 这次拿出天气、天灾来警告、督促宋仁宗。 宋仁宗很不高兴,后来罢免了他的官职。

《词源》(第161页)和《成语词典》(第860页)均收此文,但引自苏轼的《乞赈与殷秀玉书》。 《汉语成语词典》(第685页)和《成语起源与发展词典》(第863页)收了这篇文章,序《后汉书》有“身轻体微”,《纪隐修辽语书》载“人言轻”,这是元代苏轼在杭州时写的,比范震晚了三十多年。

12. 坚持不懈

“坚忍”出自苏轼,他在开封参加考试。 他在文章(P107)中提到:古之立大事的人,不仅要有超世之才,更要有坚忍不拔的志向。

In the sixth year of Emperor Renzong’s reign (1061), Su Shi took the system examination. The system examination is a temporary examination subject with the purpose of selecting various special talents, and officials can also participate. Su Shi used “perseverance” for the first time in an examination-oriented article “Chao Cuo Lun” to describe a firm and unshakable will.

“Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 404), “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 497), “Idiom Origin and Stream Dictionary” (page 488) accept this article and use this dictionary.

13. Heresies

“Heresies” came from Su Shi, who served as the Prime Minister, Zhishi Guan, and Magistrate Sui Yuan in Kaifeng. He said in a petition to Song Shenzong (P305):

Those who seek governance in ancient times will be punished. Now that Your Majesty wants to be cured, he wants to be punished. This is why the officials have misled Your Majesty. The minister knew what he said, it was from Xunqing. Xunqing liked to have different opinions, and even thought that human nature was evil, so he said that it was appropriate to govern the world and punish him severely. And the speaker also thinks that the “Book” said that Tang Yu was prosperous, so the punishment was not small, but in the prosperity of Zhou Dynasty, people who drank in groups were killed. I invite you to question me. During the reign of Yu of Xia, there were 200 great armies, and during the reign of Duke Zhou, there were 500 great armies. How can it be said that Zhou ruled but Yu caused chaos? Qin ruled the three tribes according to law, and Han eliminated corporal punishment. How can it be said that Qin ruled and Han was in chaos? The words of Zhi are extremely good. Fortunately, the world is not under control. If there is peace and order for a day, your majesty will change the current punishment and use it to the extreme? There are so many people in the world who do not rebel, but there are already many people who are afraid after hearing his words. I don’t care that heresies and heresies have led to mislead Your Majesty.

After the imperial examination in the third year of Xining (1070), Su Shi, who served as one of the examiners and was in charge of arranging the examination papers in the Jiying Hall, was dissatisfied with the guidance of public opinion and Wang Anshi’s reform at that time, and angrily wrote to Song Shenzong in the form of a Jinshi against the Imperial Examination, and sent the Speeches advocating strict enforcement of the rule of law are denounced as “heresies.”

“Dictionary of Idiom Origins” (page 1226) accepts this article and uses this dictionary. “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 1290) includes this article, but the source is Wang Fuzhi’s “Du Tongjian Lun” in the early Qing Dynasty, which is wrong.

Fourteen, respected

“High moral character and high prestige” comes from Sima Guang, who served as prime minister in Kaifeng. He said in “Ci Ru Dui Xiao Dian Zha Zi”:

I heard an imperial edict on the 2nd of this month, ordering me not to wait for the holiday, but to give my thanks, and still have the right not to go to the front and back halls for daily living. He is allowed to ride in a sedan chair to the capital hall once every three days to gather for discussion, or to handle matters under his family or minister. I thought the favor was too good and I didn’t dare to accept it, so I asked for help and resigned. On the 4th of this month, I saw the record of Zhongshu Province: “According to the imperial decree: according to the previous command, no resignation is allowed. Still order the head office to make a notice, Xu Jianyu to go outside the inner east gate, and order Nan Kang Fuye to the small hall to lead the party, I am specially exempted from daily living. I am ordered to listen to the memorial the day before the introduction.” If this is the case, the etiquette will become more important, especially if it is not respected. The minister, Weiwei Fubi III, was an assistant minister with high virtue and high prestige. Emperor Shenzong wanted to see him, so he specially made this ceremony, which has never been seen since ancient times. Who is Gu Chen, dare to compare with him?

In May of the first year of Yuan Dynasty (1086), Prime Minister Sima Guang submitted his resignation due to illness. Song Zhezong, the empress dowager who was actually listening to the government behind the curtain, was relying on him to overthrow Wang Anshi’s reform and implement Yuan Dynasty reform. He was exempted from living in the front and back halls, and was allowed to ride in a sedan chair to the capital hall once every three days to hold meetings, or to be treated as a minister under his sect. Sima Guang believed that this was a courtesy for Emperor Shenzong of the Song Dynasty to meet Fu Bi, a “highly respected” veteran of the three dynasties, and did not dare to accept it. Fu Bi served as the prime minister of Song Renzong, Song Yingzong, and Song Shenzong. He was a famous official who was relied on by the emperor, admired by all officials, and loved by the people. Therefore, Sima Guang praised him as “highly respected”.

“Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 202) accepted this article, but did not list the above historical materials, but said “also known as Delong Wangzhong”, citing the information of “Delong Wangzhong” in “Book of Jin” as the source. “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 221) contains this article, but the source cited is “Shangzong Shu” written by Gui Youguang of the Ming Dynasty. The “Dictionary of Idioms Origin and Development” (page 233) accepts this article, first citing “Seng Baozheng Continued Biography” by Seng Zuzhen in the Southern Song Dynasty, and then citing “Shangzong Zhishu” by Gui Youguang in the Ming Dynasty. When these reference books include the idiom “high moral prestige”, they do not specify the earliest source, which seems inappropriate.

Fifteen, endless complaints

“Complaining incessantly” comes from Song Huizong’s dream in the Kaifeng Palace:

(Zhang Tianjue) said: “Your Majesty, look at the prisoners and captives. I believe that evil ministers are marching here.” You cannot fall in love with the inner gardens of the palace, cannot favor the white teeth and beautiful face, and cannot abuse the common people of all nations. There is separation from the township, and the city of the Five Kingdoms suffers from cold and hunger! After saying this, he grabbed the emperor’s clothes with his hands, looked at the Tianmen, and pushed him. Lin Lingsu complained endlessly. Push the emperor down for nine days! I don’t know how the life of the emperor is? Before the golden wind moves, the cicada realizes first, and secretly sends impermanence to death without knowing it. Huizong complained endlessly, and suddenly woke up on the couch outside. He was so frightened that he was covered in cold sweat.

The story-telling novels of the Song Dynasty used the word “complaining endlessly” twice when describing Song Huizong’s dream of being pushed down from the sky, both times describing the continuous moaning.

“Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 417) accepts this article and uses this dictionary. “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 512) accepts this article, but the source of the quote comes from “Water Margin”. The “Dictionary of Idiom Origins” (page 509) contains this article. The source is “Pinghua of the Former Han Dynasty” and “Water Margin” of the Yuan Dynasty, which are not the source.

Sixteen, green fat red thin

“Green, fat, red and thin” comes from Li Qingzhao, who lived in Kaifeng, and said in “Like a Dream, Last Night Rain and Wind Spurred”:

Last night, the rain was dredging and the wind was sudden, and the heavy sleep could not eliminate the residual wine. Tried the questionnaire, but said that Haitang was still the same. 你知道吗? It should be green, fat, red and thin!

Li Qingzhao, a native of Jizhou (now Jinan, Shandong) on ​​Jingdong Road in the Song Dynasty, came from a family of scholar-bureaucrats and was known as “the most talented woman throughout the ages”. In the first year of Emperor Huizong’s reign (1101), 18-year-old Li Qingzhao came to Kaifeng to marry Zhao Mingcheng and left at the age of 24. This poem was written in her Kaifeng mansion in March of the first year of Chongning (1102). “Green, fat, red and thin” describes the lush green leaves of plants and trees in late spring, while the flowers are withering and becoming sparse. As soon as this phrase came out, the whole world was amazed: “‘Green, fat, red, thin’, this phrase is very new”; “At that time, all the scribes praised it, and no one could understand it.”

“Etymology” (page 2448), “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 523), “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 640) accept this article and use this dictionary.

Seventeen, no three no four

“No three, no four” comes from Lu Zhishen, a character in “Water Margin” outside Kaifeng:

It is said that among the thirty or twenty rogues outside the Jujube Gate, there are two leaders, one is called Zhang San, the street rat, and the other is called Li Si, the grass snake. These two are the leaders to meet the future, but Zhishen also went to the manure cellar. Seeing that this group of people did not move around, they just stood by the cellar and said in unison, “I am here to celebrate with the monk.” Zhishen said: ” Since you are neighbors, come and sit on the ground in the building.” Zhang San and Li Si prostrated themselves on the ground and refused to get up. They only expected the monk to help them, and then they started to take action. When Zhishen saw it, he already had doubts in his heart: “This group of people is not trivial, and they are unwilling to come near. Why don’t they attack Diansha’s house?”

After Lu Zhishen came to Daxiangguo Temple in Kaifeng, he was assigned to manage the vegetable garden in the suburbs. There is a group of gangsters nearby who want to give the newly arrived Lu Zhishen a showdown. Unexpectedly, Lu Zhishen was experienced in martial arts and saw through the conspiracy of this group of people and subdued them. “Not three, not four” is generally interpreted as: “It is not decent, and it is still inappropriate.” (P75) It seems to be unclear, at least the meaning is not complete. From the meaning of the word, what is “not three”? What is “not four”? Historically, there have been Buddhist explanations and Taoist explanations, both of which are far-fetched. Only in the late Ming Dynasty’s “Banlan of All Important Things” explained: “Three things are not for Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism, and four things are not for scholars, farmers, businessmen.” Although this statement is pedantic, it is practical and emphasizes not doing business properly. “Not three or four” describes someone who has no real business, is not upright, and is careless. Kaifeng, Tokyo, is rich in “rascals”, and Niu Er, who was killed by Yang Zhi in Zhouqiao, is a typical representative. “Etymology” (page 75), “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 88), “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 94) accept this article and use this dictionary. “The Dictionary of the Origin of Idioms” (page 99) accepts this article, but the quote is from the Qing Dynasty.

18. Straight to Huanglong

“Go straight to Huanglong” came from Yue Fei who lived in Zhuxian Town, Kaifeng. “Song History” (P11390-P11391) records:

Fei marched into Zhuxian Town, forty-five miles away from Bianjing, and faced off against Wushu. He sent Xiao generals to attack with 500 cavalry on their backs, and defeated them. Wushu escaped and returned to Bianjing. … Jin General Han Chang wanted to enclose 50,000 people. Fei was overjoyed and said to him: “Go straight to Huanglong Mansion and have a drink with all the gentlemen!”

In the tenth year of Shaoxing (1140), Yue Fei sent his troops northward and won consecutive battles. His troops reached Zhuxian Town, 45 miles south of Kaifeng City, and many Jin troops surrendered. Yue Fei was so happy that he ordered his subordinates to fight all the way to Huanglong Mansion, the Jinren’s lair. Later generations used it as “going straight to Huanglong” or “drinking from Huanglong”, which is a metaphor for destroying the enemy’s base.

“Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (page 1375) accepts this article and “drinking the yellow dragon” (page 1046), and uses this dictionary. “Chinese Idiom Dictionary” (pages 1153-1154) and “Chinese Idiom Origins Dictionary” (page 1303) accept this article and use this dictionary.

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A classic song every day

Who knows how long it takes to abandon idleness? When spring comes, the melancholy is still there.

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